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英语反意疑问句解题技巧与专题解析


来源:衡阳德胜家教吧 日期:2014-01-09

英语反意疑问句解题技巧与专题解析

【基础知识点睛】

定义:反意疑问句又名附加疑问句。属疑问句的一种,表示说话者对某事有一定看法,但又不完全确定,需要对方加以证实。其基本结构为陈述句+一般疑问句的简略形式。

结构:如陈述部分为肯定式,疑问部分用否定式。反之,如陈述部分否定式,疑问部分用肯定式。疑问部分重复陈述句的主语(必须用代词)和be , have,助动词或情态动词。如陈述句中没有 be, have,助动词或情态动词,则须另加do。如:

She has gone to town, hasn't she?  她进城了,对吗?

You like it, don't you?           你喜欢它,不是吗?

注意事项:

1. 在朗读时,反意疑问句的前一部分用降调,后一部分,在表示疑问时用升调,在表示肯定或强调时用降调。如:

He's an engineer, isn't he?↑        他是工程师,是不是?

It's a fine day today, isn't it?↓      今天天气很好,对吧?

2. 附加问句的主语应与陈述句的主语保持一致,且只能用人称代词替代。如:

You come from Beijing, don't you?你来自北京,是不是?

The students in Grade One won't go to the park, will they?一年级的学生不去公园了,是吗?

当陈述句的主语为nobody、none、no one、anybody、anyone、everybody、everyone等表人的不定代词或these、those指示代词时,其附加问句通常用they作主语,而nothing、anything、everything等表物的不定代词或this、that指示代词作主语时,其附加问句通常用it作主语。如:

Anyone can answer the question, can't they?任何人都能回答这个问题,不是吗?

Everything is ready, isn't it?一切准备好了,是不是?

That is a yellow kite, isn't it?那是只黄色的风筝,不是吗?

当陈述句是第一人称I+think/suppose/consider/believe/imagine等接的宾语从句时,附加问句的主语应依从句的主语而定。如:

I don't think the film is interesting, is it?我认为这部电影没趣,是吗?

如果主句主语非第一人称,附加问句的主语常依主句的主语而定。如:

Jim said no one was fond of the job, didn't he?吉姆说没人喜欢这项工作,是不是?

You thought we were from the States, didn't you?你原以为我们来自美国,是吗?

如果陈述句为there be句型,附加问句的主语为there。如:

There will not be any trouble, will there?

There's something wrong, isn't there?出事了,不是吗?

当陈述部分的主语为不定式、动名词或句子,附加问句的主语一律为it。如:

Reading is useful, isn't it?阅读非常有用,不是吗?

3. 附加问句的动词要与陈述句的动词时态保持一致,并要用相应的助动词替代。如:

He can swim, can't he?他会游泳,不是吗?

The stores close at nine o'clock, don't they?商店九点关门,不是吗?

但也有一些附加问句与陈述句谓语时态不一致的情况。如:

I'm late, aren't I?我晚了,不是吗?

He must be lost, isn't he?他可能迷路了,不是吗?

They must have completed the project last night, didn't they?

他们可能昨晚完成了这项工程,是不是?

They must have left, haven't they?他们可能走了,是不是?

当must表推测时,附加问句的动词应依must后的动词而定。在对过去事实进行推测时,附加问句的时态应根据主句是否带有时间状语而定。

4. 对反意疑问句的回答,肯定或否定要前后保持一致,即前面用“yes”,后面必须是肯定;前面用“no”,后面必须是否定。

5. 在回答“前否定(陈述句)+后肯定(简略问句)”的反意疑问句时,答语中“yes”和“no”的翻译恰好与汉语相反,如:

He isn't a pianist, is he?      他不是钢琴家,是吗?

Yes, he is.    (No, he isn't.)  不,他是钢琴家。(对,他不是钢琴家。)

【重点难点突破】

1. 与祈使句有关的反意疑问句

(1)以肯定祈使句开头的反意疑问句,其疑问部分通常为“will you”,也可以是“won't you”。例如:Please turn down the radio, will / won't you?

(思路:Please turn down the radio. →Will you please turn down the radio?)

Wait for a moment, will / won't you?

(2)以否定祈使句开头的反意疑问句,其疑问部分为“will you”。例如:

Please don't draw on the wall, will you?

(3)以Let's开头,表示建议的祈使句,由于句中的实际主语包括听、说双方,所以其疑问部分为“shall / shan't we”。例如:Let's have a rest, shall / shan't we?

如果是由Let's not开头的祈使句,其疑问部分用all right或O. K.。例如:

Let's not go shopping, all right (=O. K.)?

(4)以Let us / me开头,征询意见的祈使句,由于句中的实际主语仅指对方,所以其疑问部分为“will you”。例如:Let us go there, will you?

Let me have another try, will you?

2. 与复合句有关的反意疑问句

(1)如果陈述部分是主从复合句,其反问部分的主语和助动词应与主句的主语和助动词保持一致。例如:If he hasn't finished his work, he can't go out to play, can he?

(2)以第一人称I / We + think / believe / imagine / suppose / guess / expect / etc.开头的主从复合句,其疑问部分的主谓语应与从句的主谓语保持一致。例如:

I think he has arrived at the airport, hasn't he?

但如果主句是否定句,则应将否定还原到从句中处理,(即将该主从复合句还原成单句后处理)。例如:I don't believe she knows it, does she?

(思路:I don't believe she knows it. → I believe she doesn't know it. → She doesn't know it.)

如果主句的主语是第二、第三人称,其反问部分的主语应与主句的主语保持一致。例如:

He believes they will come, doesn't he?

(3)当陈述部分的主语是从句、不定式(短语)、动名词等时,疑问部分的主语用it。如:

Whether they will come or not doesn't matter too much, does it?

他们是否来关系不太大,对吗?(主语从句作陈述句的主语)

Packing the suitcase has taken up a whole morning, hasn't it?

打包(手提皮箱)花了一个上午,是吗?(动名词短语作陈述句的主语)

To learn a foreign language well in such a short time isn't easy, is it?

在那么短的时间内要学会一门外语是不容易的,对吗?(不定式短语作陈述句的主语)

3. 与感叹句有关的反意疑问句

如果陈述句部分是感叹句,其反问部分要用否定式。例如:

What a beautiful day, isn't it?                                How clever the girl is, isn't she?

4. 与含否定意义的词有关的反意疑问句

如果陈述部分含有never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, no, none, no one, rarely, nowhere, nothing, nobody, few, little等具有否定意义的词,其反问部分要用肯定式。例如:They have never met each other before, have they?

You have nothing more to say, have you?

Few people know him, do they?

注意:当陈述部分含有由dis-, un-, im-, in-, im-, il-, ir- 等否定前缀构成的派生词(dislike, discourage, be unfair/ untrue/ unable, etc.)时,虽意思是“不”,但疑问部分仍要用否定式。如:

You dislike it, don't you?

The patient is unable to move round, isn't he?

The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him, didn't it?

She dislike it, doesn't she?    她不喜欢它,是吧?

5. 与谓语有关的反意疑问句

(1)如果陈述部分含有表推测的情态动词must,其反问部分不能用情态动词,应根据具体情况而定。

A.must表示“应该”,其疑问部分用mustn't(不应该),如:

You must work hard next term, mustn't you ?     下学期你应该努力学习,对吗?

B.must表示“必须”,其疑问部分用needn't(不必),如:

We must go at once, needn't we?     我们必须立刻走,是吗?

C.must表示推测,其疑问部分必须与must 后面的主要动词相呼应。如:

1)对现在动作或存在的情况的推测:

You must know the answer to the exercise, don't you?  你一定知道这项练习的答案,是不是?

That must be your bed, isn't it?    那一定是你的床,是吗?

2)对过去发生的动作或存在的情况的推测:

①表示肯定

You must have left your bag in the theatre, haven't you?你一定是把包落在剧场了,是不是?

Aunt Liu must have got to the U.S.A. yesterday, didn't she?刘大婶昨天准是到了美国了,对不?

②表示否定

表示推测时,否定式通常不是must not,而是can't (cannot).如:

He can't have been to your home; he doesn't know your address, does he?

他不可能去过你家;他不知道你的地址,是不是?

D.陈述部分含情态动词mustn't,表示禁止时,附加疑问部分就可以用must或may,如:

We mustn't be late, must we?(may we?)    我们不可以迟到,是吗?

(2)如果陈述句部分的谓语是“有”动词have,其反问部分既可用have的适当形式,也可用do的适当形式。当陈述部分谓语动词have不表示“有”,而表“吃、休息、开会、不得不、使…等意思时,附加问句的动词应用do、does或did。例如:

Tom has an interesting book, hasn't / doesn't he?

You have headaches, don't you?

You had a good time yesterday, didn't you?

(3)如果陈述句部分的谓语含有used to,其反问部分既可用usedn't,也可用didn't。

They used to be good friends, didn't they?         他们过去一向是好朋友,是吗?

Grandmother used to get up early, didn't she?    奶奶过去时常早起,对吗?

There used to be a station over there, didn't there?     过去那儿有个火车站,对吗?

除了陈述句,祈使句后也可加上一个简短问句,使语气变得缓和。近三年中考考查的都是祈使句结构的反意疑问句。

1.在祈使句的肯定结构中,附加问句即反意疑问句,常用will (would、could、can、can't) you?表示“请求”或“告诉人们该什么”;用won't you?表“邀请”。如:

Give me that book, will you?请给我那本书,好吗?

Shut up, can't you?(或can you)闭嘴,行吗?

Have dinner with us, won't you?和我们一起吃饭,好吗?

2.在祈使句的否定结构中,附加问句常用肯定形式will you?如:

Don't forget to bring an umbrella, will you?不要忘了带把雨伞,好吗?

Never talk aloud, will you?不要大声说话,好吗?

3.在祈使的Let's (或Let us)结构中,附加部分用肯定形式 shall we (或will you)?如:

Let's go and have a book at it, shall me?咱们去看一看,好吗?

Let us know what has happened, will you?让我们知道发生了什么事,行吗?

Let me/her do it, will you?让我/她去做,行吗?

4.在带有主语的祈使句中,我们可视它为第一种情况,用will you?如:

Xiao Ming, you clean the blackboard, will you?小明,你擦黑板,好吗?

该句主语you为听话人,表示请求或命令。

5.在用助动词do表加强语气的祈使句中,我们也可视为第一种情况。如:

Do sit down, won't you?(表邀请)您请坐,好吗?

【解题方法解析】

1. It's a fine day. Let's go fishing,______?

A. won't we  B. will we  C. don't we  D. shall we

答案:D。考查的是Let's祈使句的附加问句,应为shall we;如果是Let us 祈使句,其附加问句为will you。Let’s 包括听话者在内;而let us不包括对方。

2. Don't smoke in the meetingroom.______?

A. do you  B. will you  C. can you  D. could you

答案:B考查的是否定祈使句的附加问句,只能肯定形式will you?

3. --- Alice, you feed the bird today,______?

--- But I fed it yesterday.

          A. do you  B. will you  C. didn't you  D. don't you

答案:B该题很容易被误认为是一个陈述句的附加问句。实际上,它是一个带主语的肯定祈使句的附加问句,选项中只有will you合适。译文:-艾丽斯,今天你去喂鸟,好吗?-可我昨天喂了。

【反意疑问句小结】

一、反意疑问句的一般情况
1.当陈述部分的主语是:等everyone, everybody, someone, no one, nobody, somebody合成代词时,附加疑问句的主语非正式文体中往往they用。(也可以按语法一致原则用单数。)
2.当陈述部分以one不定代词做主语时,附加问句的主语在正式常场用one,非正式场合用he。
3.当陈述部分的主语是不定式、动名词、从句、this或that,附加疑问句的主语用it。(是those, these则用they)
4.当陈述部分的主语是表示物的不定代词everything, anything, nothing等,附加问句的主语用it。
5.陈述部分带有否定词或半否定词,例如:never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, no, none, no one, rarely, nowhere, nothing, nobody, few, little等,附加疑问句的动词要用肯定形式。
6.如果陈述部分中的否定词仅带有否定的前缀或后缀,那么该陈述句应作肯定句处理,附加疑问句应用否定形式。
二、常见句型的反意疑问句
7.当陈述部分是there be 存在句型时,附加疑问句的主语也用there。
8.感叹句的附加疑问句,其谓语要求用否定句。
9.祈使句后面的附加疑问句问题
A) 祈使句是否定形式,附加疑问句只能用will you。
B) 祈使句是肯定形式,附加疑问句用肯定、否定均可。
C) Let开头的祈使句要注意:
1.Let’s 在意义上包含谈话的对方在内,表示提出建议或征求对方意见,其反意疑问句
往往用shall we。
2. Let us 在意义上一般不包含谈话的对方在内,表示请求对方允许做某事的含义,let 有allow的意思。附加疑问部分用will you。
3. Let me 开头表示请求,附加疑问句用will you,或用may I。
三、复合句的反意疑问句
10.当陈述部分是一个(带that引导宾语从句的)主从复合句时,附加疑问句的主谓要和主句的主谓保持对应关系。但是, 当陈述部分的主语是:I suppose, I think, I believe, I imagine, I expect等结构时,附加疑问句的主语和谓语要和从句的主语,谓语保持一致关系。而且要注意到否定的转移问题。
11.当陈述部分是I’m sure that,;we are sure;I’m afraid that;We are sure that;I feel sure that 等后面跟宾语从句时,反意疑问句与后面的宾语从句一致。
12.当陈述部分是并列句时,附加疑问句的主谓语要和离它最近的句子的主谓保持对应关系。
四、关于情态动词的反意疑问句
13.陈述部分中有have一词,且表示“所有”含义时,附加疑问句部分既可用have也可用do。
14.陈述部分中有have to,附加疑问句部分用do。
15.含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。
  He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?
16.陈述部分有used to,附加疑问句部分可用used 也可以用did 。
17.陈述部分有needn’t时,附加疑问句部分用need但有时也可用must。
18. 陈述部分有must,且表示“必须”时,附加疑问句部分用mustn’t,如果表示“必要”则用needn’t。
19.陈述部分中是mustn’t表示“禁止”时,附加疑问句部分用must。
陈述部分中的must表示“一定”、“想必”等推测意义时,附加疑问句部分而是根据陈
述部分的谓语动词或其助动词来定。
20.陈述部分是I wish, 表示询问或征求意见,附加疑问部分用may I。
21.弄清陈述句中的’d rather = would rather;’d better = had better附加疑问句部分前者用would,后者用had。

其它特殊结构的反意疑问句
22.陈述部分的主语是each of...结构时,附加疑问句在强调整体时用they,当作个别时用he。
23.陈述部分有neither...nor...(either...or...)做并列主语,附加疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。
    Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?
24.陈述部分是:I’m ....结构,附加疑问句一般用aren’t I?

25.  陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you?

   You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?

26.  陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。

  He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?

27.  陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。

  You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?

28.  带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。

  We need not do it again, need we ?

  He dare not say so, dare you?

  当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。

  She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?

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